Friday, July 25, 2008







Thursday, July 24, 2008


Recently a volcano that had been dormant for 9,000 years near the coast
of Chile erupted spectacularly, hurling liquified metals and lightning
many miles into the sky.

The results, which you see here, are called a "dirty thunderstorm" and
are quite rare.

Nobody is certain what causes them, but according to National
Geographic it's believed to be "the result of rock fragments, ash, and ice
particles in the plume colliding to produce static charges - just as ice
particles collide to create charge in regular thunderstorms."

6 And there was also a great and terrible tempest; and there was terrible thunder, insomuch that it did shake the whole earth as if it was about to divide asunder.
7 And there were exceedingly sharp lightnings, such as never had been known in all the land.
8 And the city of Zarahemla did take fire.
9 And the city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea, and the inhabitants thereof were drowned.
10 And the earth was carried up upon the city of Moronihah, that in the place of the city there became a great mountain.
11 And there was a great and terrible destruction in the land southward.
12 But behold, there was a more great and terrible destruction in the land northward; for behold, the whole face of the land was changed, because of the tempest and the whirlwinds, and the thunderings and the lightnings, and the exceedingly great quaking of the whole earth;
13 And the highways were broken up, and the level roads were spoiled, and many smooth places became rough.




A megaflood seems to have scoured a canyon on Earth which, interestingly, looks a lot like canyons on Mars. And that new conclusion, researchers say, could help figure out whether there was ever life on Mars.

To better understand how massive canyons possibly formed on Mars, scientists investigated Idaho's Box Canyon, which like many Martian gorges, was sculpted by water in volcanic rock. This deep valley ends with a round, steep wall, giving it an "amphitheater shape," and was long considered a classic example of how a canyon formed through gradual erosion, as groundwater seeped through the canyon walls and wore the hard rock away.

But now it seems a massive flash flood may actually have carved out Box Canyon roughly 45,000 years ago. By implication, many canyons on Mars that are cut in volcanic rock and amphitheater-shaped like Box Canyon might have formed the same way, the researchers said.

Plunge pools

The scientists analyzed geological features of Box Canyon, such as depressions or "plunge pools" that appear to have been the site of ancient waterfalls, and the age of large boulders found downstream.

"We fully expected to find Box Canyon was carved by groundwater, but then all the evidence we found pointed at a megaflood," said Michael Lamb, a geomorphologist at the University of California, Berkeley.

Lamb and his colleagues found scour marks from flooding at the head of the canyon, and discovered that all the rock that was moved to form the gorge required a vast amount of water to propel it the distance it went.

They conclude Box Canyon was formed during a catastrophic flood or series of floods, presumably caused by melting ice sheets that lay at mountains to the north.

"The entire canyon seems to have been cut out of the earth by this flood," Lamb said. Although hardened lava, or basalt, is hard, "it's very fractured material. When lava cools, it contracts and cracks just like mud does. All this cracking makes the basalt like a pile of stacked blocks. So while small floods might cause little erosion, a large enough flood can pull these blocks out of place."

And the megaflood was likely very powerful indeed. "Imagine forcing a quarter of the flow in the Mississippi through a chute 32 times as narrow and 1,000 times as steep as the Mississippi River channel," Lamb told

Huge boulders moved

Conservative estimates suggest the megaflood blasted 800 to 2,800 metric tons of water per second, reaching speeds of up to some 22 mph within the canyon. This explains how boulders the scientists examined could have dropped on the ground seemingly out of nowhere — the flood picked them up and hurled them along. All in all, the canyon could have been carved in as little as 35 to 160 days.

The canyons of Mars may have been carved the same way — from megafloods of water and not, say, liquid carbon dioxide, which also once flowed over the surface of the red planet. Carbon dioxide is the stuff that puts fizz in soda.

"Carbon dioxide tends to erupt, be really explosive, and shoot into the air, and not form bottom-hugging flows," Lamb said. "The valleys on Mars are hundreds of kilometers long, eroded into rock, and probably required a denser fluid like water."

If one can tell how water flowed on Mars, "that has implications on us living on Mars and on finding out whether there was other life on Mars," Lamb added.

But studying Martian canyons for signs of formation by flooding will be very hard.

"The clues of the flood event were relatively subtle at Box Canyon. It wasn't until our second field season that we saw the scour marks at the head of the canyon," Lamb said. "Even the highest resolution imagery from Mars, which is about three-quarters of a meter per pixel, would not reveal those marks. And Box Canyon formed only 45,000 years ago, while some of the canyons on Mars may have formed 3.5 billion years ago, about 100,000 times older, and they may have altered much since then. This makes studying Earth analogues all the more important for understanding Mars."

The findings are detailed in the May 23 issue of the journal Science.

Saturday, July 19, 2008



Joseph and Aseneth - Israel in Egypt

And Pharaoh called Joseph 's name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potimherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. Genesis 41:45

And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him. Genesis 41:50

And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him. Genesis 46:20

The Life of Joseph is recorded in Genesis 37:1-50:26. The king of Egypt changed his name to Zaphnath-paaneah, because of his ability to reveal secrets

Chapter One

1. It came to pass in the first year of the seven years of plenty, in the second month, that Pharaoh sent out Joseph to go round the whole land of Egypt.

2. And Joseph came, in the fourth month of the first year, on the eighteenth day of the month, into the district of Heliopolis.

3. And he was collecting all the corn of that land, as the sand of the sea.

4. Now there was in that city a man, a satrap of Pharaoh; and this man was the chief of all Pharaoh's satraps and lords.

5. And he was very rich, and wise, and generous, and he was Pharaoh's counsellor, and his name was Pentephres; and he was the priest of Heliopolis (of On)

6. And Pentephres had a virgin daughter of about eighteen years of age, tall and beautiful and graceful, more beautiful than any other virgin in the land.

7. And she was quite unlike the daughters of the Egyptians, but in every respect like the daughters of the Hebrews.

8. And she was as tall as Sarah, and as beautiful as Rebecca, and as fair as Rachel; and this virgin's name was Aseneth.

9. And the fame of her beauty spread through all that land, even to its remotest corners; and all the sons of the lords and of the satraps and of the kings sought her hand in marriage, young men all of them.

10. And there was great rivalry between them because of her, and they began to fight among themselves because of Aseneth.

11. And Pharaoh's eldest son heard about her, and he begged his father to give her to him as his wife.

12. And he said to him, "Give me Aseneth the daughter of Pentephres the priest of Heliopolis as my wife." And his father Pharaoh said to him, "Why should you want a wife of lower station than yourself?

13. Are you not king of all the earth?

14. No! See now, the daughter of King Joakim is betrothed to you, and she is a queen and very beautiful indeed: take her as your wife."

Chapter Two

1. Now Aseneth despised all men and regarded them with contempt; yet no man had ever seen her, for Pentephres had a tower in his house, and it was large and very high.

2. And the top storey had ten rooms in it.

3. The first room was large and pleasant; and it was paved with purple stones, and its walls were faced with precious stones of different kinds.

4. And the ceiling of that room was of gold; and within it were ranged the innumerable gods of the Egyptians, in gold and silver.

5. And Aseneth worshipped all these; and she feared them and offered sacrifices to them.

6. The second room contained all the finery for Aseneth's adornment and treasure chests.

7. And there was much gold in it, and silver, and garments woven with gold, and precious stones of great price, and fine linens.

8. And all her girlish ornaments were there.

9. The third room contained all the good things of the earth; and it was Aseneth's store-house.

10. And seven virgins had the remaining seven rooms, one each.

11. And they used to wait on Aseneth, and were of the same age as she was, for they were all born on the same night as Aseneth; and they were very beautiful, like the stars of heaven, and no man or boy had ever had anything to do with them.

12. And Aseneth's large room, where she spent her time, had three windows.

13. One window looked out over the courtyard to the east: the second looked to the north, onto the street; and the third to the south.

14. And a golden bed stood in the room, facing the east.

15. And the bed had a coverlet of purple woven with gold, embroidered with blue, and fine linen.

16. In this bed Aseneth used to sleep alone, and no man or woman ever sat upon it, except Aseneth only.

17. And there was a great court all round the house, and a wall round the court, very high and built of great rectangular stones.

18. And there were four gates to the court, overlaid with iron; and eighteen strong young men-at-arms used to guard each one of them.

19. And along the wall inside the court every kind of beautiful tree that produces fruit had been planted; and the fruit on every one of them was ripe, for it was harvest time.

20. And on the right of the court there was an ever-bubbling spring of water, and beneath the spring a great cistern that received the water from the spring and out of which a river flowed through the middle of the court and watered all the trees in it.

Chapter Three

1. And it came to pass in the fourth month, on the eighteenth day of the month, that Joseph came into the district of Heliopolis.

2. And as he approached the city, Joseph sent twelve men in front of him to Pentephres, the priest of Heliopolis, saying, May I be your guest to-day, for it is near noon and time for a mid-day meal?

3. The sun's heat is overpowering, and I would enjoy some refreshment under your roof.

4. When Pentephres heard this, he was overjoyed and said,

5. "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Joseph." And Pentephres called his steward and said to him,

6. "Make haste and get my house into order, and prepare a great feast, because Joseph, the mighty man of God, is coming to us to-day.

7. And Aseneth heard that her father and mother had come back from their family estate in the country.

8. And she rejoiced and said, I will go and see my father and my mother for they have come back from their family estate in the country.

9. And Aseneth hurried and put on a fine linen robe of blue woven with gold and a golden girdle round her waist, and she put bracelets round her hands and feet, and she put on golden trousers and a necklace round her neck.

10. And there were precious stones all about her, with the names of Egyptian gods inscribed on them everywhere, on the bracelets and on the stones; and the names of the idols were stamped on the stones.

11. And she put a tiara on her head and bound a diadem round her temples and covered her head with a veil.

Chapter Four

1. And she hurried and came down by the staircase from her storey at the top; and she came to her father and mother and greeted them.

2. And it gave Pentephres and his wife great joy to see their daughter Aseneth adorned as the bride of God. And they took out all the good things they had brought from their estate in the country, and they gave them to their daughter.

4. And Aseneth rejoiced at the good things, and at the fruit, the grapes and the dates, and at the doves and at the pomegranates and the figs, for they were all delightful.

5. And Pentephres said to his daughter Aseneth, "My child": she said, "Lo, here I am, my lord."

6. And he said to her, "Sit down, please, between us: I want to talk to you." And Aseneth sat down between her father and her mother.

7. And her father Pentephres took her right hand n his right hand and said to her, "My child"; and Aseneth said, "What is it, father?"

8. And Pentephres said to her, "See, Joseph, the mighty man of God, is coming to us to-day, and he is ruler of all the land of Egypt, for Pharaoh has appointed him ruler of all our land; and he is the distributor of corn throughout the country and is to save it from the famine that is come upon it.

9. And Joseph is a man that worships God: he is discriminating, and a virgin (as you are to-day), and a man of great wisdom and knowledge, and the spirit of God is upon him, and the grace of the Lord is with him.

10. So come, my child, and I will give you to him as his wife: you shall be his bride, and he shall be your bridegroom for ever."

11. And when Aseneth heard what her father said, a great red sweat came over her, and she was furious and looked sideways at her father.

12. And she said, "Why should my lord and my father speak like this and talk as if he would hand me over like a prisoner to a man of another race, a man who was a fugitive and was sold as a slave?

13. Is this not the shepherd's son from the land of Canaan, and he was abandoned by him?

14. Is not this the man who had intercourse with his mistress, and his master threw him into prison where he lay in darkness, and Pharaoh brought him out of prison, because he interpreted his dream?

15. No! I will marry the eldest son of the king, for he is king of all the earth."

16. On hearing this, Pentephres thought it wiser to say no more to his daughter about Joseph, for she had answered him arrogantly and in anger.

Chapter Five

1. And behold, one of the young men from Pentephres's retinue burst in and said,

2. "Lo. Joseph is at the gates of our court." And Aseneth quickly left her father and her mother and ran upstairs and went into her room and stood at the big window that looked towards the east, so as to see Joseph as he came into her father's house.

3. And Pentephres and his wife and all his relations went out to meet Joseph.

4. And the gates of the court that looked east were opened, and Joseph came in, sitting in Pharaoh's viceroy's chariot.

5. And there were four horses yoked together, white as snow, with golden reins; and the chariot was covered over with gold.

6. And Joseph was wearing a marvellous white tunic, and the robe wrapped around him was purple, made of linen woven with gold: there was a golden crown on his head, and all round the crown were twelve precious stones, and above the stones twelve golden rays; and a royal sceptre was in his right hand.

7. And he held an olive branch stretched out, and there was much fruit on it.

8. And Joseph came into the court, and the gates were shut.

9. And strangers, whether men or women, remained outside, because the gate-keepers had shut the doors.

10. And Pentephres came, and his wife, and all his relatives, except their daughter Aseneth; and they made obeisance to Joseph with their faces to the ground.

11. And Joseph got down from his chariot and extended his right hand to them.

Chapter Six

1. And Aseneth saw Joseph and she was cut to the quick, her stomach turned over, her knees became limp, and her whole body trembled.

2. And she was much afraid and cried out and said, "Where shall I go, and where can I hide myself from him? And how will Joseph, the son of God, regard me, for I have spoken evil of him?

3. Where can I flee and hide myself, for he sees everything, and no secret is safe with him, because of the great light that is in him?

4. And now may Joseph's God be propitious to me because I spoke evil in ignorance.

5. What can I hope for, wretch that I am? Have I not spoken, saying, Joseph is coming, the shepherd's son from the land of Canaan? And now, behold the sun is come to us from heaven in his chariot and has come into our house to-day.

6. But I was foolish and reckless to despise him, and I spoke evil of him and did not know that Joseph is the son of God.

7. For who among men will ever father such beauty, and what mother will ever bear such a light? Wretch that I am and foolish, for I spoke evil of him to my father.

8. Now let my father give me to Joseph as a maidservant and a slave, and I will serve him for ever."

Chapter Seven

1. And Joseph came into Pentephres's house and sat down on a seat; and he washed his feet, and he placed a table in front of him separately, because he would not eat with the Egyptians, for this was an abomination to him.

2. And Joseph spoke to Pentephres and all his relations, saying, "Who is that woman standing in the solar by the window? Tell her to go away."

3. (This was because Joseph was afraid she too might solicit him; for

all the wives and daughters of the lords and satraps of all the land of Egypt use to solicit him to lie with him.

4. And many of the wives and daughters of the Egyptians suffered much, after seeing Joseph, because he was so handsome; and they would send emissaries to him with gold and silver and valuable gifts.

5. And Joseph would reject them out of hand, saying, I will not sin before the God of Israel.

6. And Joseph kept his father Jacob's face before his eyes continually, and he remembered his father's commandments; for Jacob used to say to Joseph and his brothers, "Be on your guard, my children, against the strange woman, and have nothing to do with her, for she is ruin and destruction.

7. That is why Joseph said, "Tell that woman to go away."

8. And Pentephres said to him, "My lord, the woman you have seen in the storey at the top is no stranger: she is our daughter, a virgin, who detests men; and no other man has ever seen her, apart from you today.

9. And if you wish it, she shall come and speak with you; for our daughter is your sister.

10. And Joseph was overjoyed because Pentephres said, "She is a virgin who detests men." 1

11. And Joseph answered Pentephres and his wife and said, "If she is your daughter, then let her come, for she is my sister, and I will regard her as my sister from to-day."

Chapter Eight

1. And Aseneth's mother went up to the top storey and brought Aseneth down to Joseph; and Pentephres said to his daughter Aseneth, "Greet your brother, for he too is a virgin as you are to-day, and he detests all strange women just as you detest strange men."

2. And Aseneth said to Joseph, "May you have joy, my lord, blessed as you are of God Most High"; and Joseph said to her, "May God, who has given all things life, bless you."

3. And Pentephres said to Aseneth, "Come near and kiss your brother."

4. And when she came near to kiss Joseph, Joseph stretched his right hand out, and laid it against her breast, and said,

5. "It is not right for a man who worships God, who with his mouth blesses the living God, and eats the blessed bread of life, and drinks the blessed cup of immortality, and is anointed with the blessed unction of incorruption, to kiss a strange woman, who with her mouth blesses dead and dumb idols, and eats of their table the bread of anguish, and drinks of their libations the cup of treachery, and is anointed with the unction of destruction.

6. A man who worships God will kiss his mother and his sister that is of his own tribe and kin, and the wife that shares his couch, who with their mouths bless the living God.

7. So too it is not right for a woman who worships God to kiss a strange man, because this is an abomination in God's eyes."

8. And when Aseneth heard what Joseph said, she was most distressed and cried out aloud; and she fixed her gaze on Joseph, and her eyes were filled with tears.

9. And Joseph saw her and his heart went out to her -- for Joseph was tender-hearted and compassionate and feared the Lord.

10. And he lifted up his right hand above her head and said,

"O Lord, the God of my father Israel, the Most High, the Mighty One,

Who didst quicken all things, and didst call them from darkness into light.

And from error into truth, and from death into life;

Do thou, O Lord, thyself quicken and bless this virgin,

11. And renew her by thy spirit, and remould her by thy secret hand,

And quicken her with thy life.

And may she eat the bread of thy life,

And may she drink the cup of thy blessing,

She whom thou didst choose before she was begotten,

And may she enter into thy rest, which thou has prepared for thine elect."

Chapter Nine

1. And Aseneth was filled with joy at Joseph's blessing, and she went up in haste to her storey at the top and fell on her couch exhausted, because she felt not only happy, but also disturbed and very frightened; and she had been bathed in perspiration from the moment she heard Joseph speaking to her in the name of God Most High.

2. And she wept bitterly, and she repented of her gods she used to worship; and she waited for evening to come.

3. And Joseph ate and drank; and he said to his servants, "Yoke the horses to the chariot" (for he said, "I must depart and go round the whole city and the district").

4. And Pentephres said to Joseph, "Stay the night here, my lord and to-morrow go your way."

5. And Joseph said, "No! I must be going now, for this is the day when God began his works: in eight days time I will come back again and stay the night here with you."

Chapter Ten

1. Then Pentephres and his relations went away to their estate.

2. And Aseneth was left alone with the virgins, and she was listless and wept until sunset: she ate no bread and drank no water; and while all slept she alone was awake.

3. And she opened the door and went down to the gate; and she found the portress asleep with her children.

4. And Aseneth quickly took down the leather curtain from the door, and she filled it with ashes and carried it up to the top storey and laid it on the floor.

5. And she secured the door and fastened it with the iron bar from the side; and she groaned aloud and wept.

6. And the virgin that Aseneth loved most of all the virgins heard her mistress groaning, and she roused the other virgins and came and found the door shut.

7. And she listened to Aseneth groaning and weeping and said, "Why are you so sorrowful my lady? What is it that its troubling you?

8. Open the door for us, so that we can see you." And Aseneth said to them from inside (shut in as she was, "I have a violent headache and am resting on my bed; and I have no strength left to open to you now, for I am utterly exhausted; but go each of you to her room."

9. And Aseneth got up and opened her door quietly, and went into her second room, where her treasure-chests and the finery for her adornment were, and she opened her wardrobe and took out a black and sombre tunic.

10. (And this was her mourning tunic, which she had worn for mourning when her eldest brother died). And Aseneth took off her royal robe and put on the black one, and she untied her golden girdle and tied a rope around her waist instead, and she took her tiara off her head and the diadem, and the bracelets from her hands.

12. And she took her best robe, just as it was, and threw it out of the window, for the poor.

13. And she took all her innumerable gold and silver gods and broke them up into little pieces, and threw them out of the window for the poor and needy.

14. And Aseneth took her royal dinner, even the fatted beasts and the fish and the meat, and all the sacrifices of her gods, and the wine-vessels for their libations; and she threw them all out of the window as food for the dogs.

15. And after this she took the ashes and poured them out on the floor.

16. And she took sackcloth and wrapped it round her waist, and she removed the fillet from her hair and sprinkled herself with ashes; and she fell down upon the ashes.

17. And she beat her breast repeatedly with her two hands and wept bitterly and groaned all night until the morning.

18. And in the morning Aseneth got up and looked and lo, the ashes underneath her were like mud because of her tears.

19. And again, Aseneth fell down on her face upon the ashes until sunset.

20. And so Aseneth did for seven days; and she tasted neither food nor drink.

Chapter Eleven

1. And it came to pass on the eighth day that Aseneth looked up from the floor where she was lying (for she was losing the use of her limbs as a result of her great affliction).

Chapter Twelve

1. And she stretched her hands out towards the east, and her eyes looked up to heaven, and she said,

2. "O Lord, God of the ages, that didst give to all the breath of life,
That didst bring into the light the things unseen,
That hast made all things and made visible what was invisible,

3. That hast raised up the heaven and founded the earth upon the waters,
That hast fixed the great stones upon the abyss of water
Which shall not be submerged,
But to the end they do thy will.

4. O Lord, my God, to thee will I cry: hear my supplication;
And unto thee will I make confession of my sins,
And unto thee will I reveal my transgressions of thy law.

5. I have sinned, O Lord, I have sinned:
I have transgressed thy law and acted impiously,
And I have spoken things evil before thee.
My mouth, O Lord, has been defiled by things offered to idols,
And by the table of the gods of the Egyptians.

6. I have sinned, O Lord, before thee; I have sinned and acted impiously,
Worshiping idols deaf and dumb,
And I am not worthy to open my mouth unto thee, wretch that I am.

7. I have sinned, O Lord, before thee,
I, the daughter of Pentephres the priest,
the haughty and arrogant Aseneth.
To thee, O Lord, I present my supplication, and unto thee will I cry:
Deliver me from my persecutors, for unto thee have I fled,
Like a child to his father and his mother.

8. And do thou, O Lord, stretch forth thy hands over me,
As a father that loves his children and is tenderly affectionate,
And snatch me from the hand of my enemy.

9. For lo, the wild primeval Lion pursues me;
And his children are the gods of the Egyptians that I have abandoned and destroyed; And their father the Devil is trying to devour me

10. But do thou, O Lord deliver me from his hands,
And rescue me from his mouth,
Lest he snatch me like a wolf and tear me,
And cast me into the abyss of fire, and into the tempest of the sea;
And let not the great Sea-monster swallow me.

11. Save me, O Lord, deserted as I am,
For my father and mother denied me,
Because I destroyed and shattered their gods;
And I have no other hope save in thee, O Lord;
For thou art the father of the orphans, and the champion of the persecuted,
And the help of them that are oppressed.

12. For, lo, all the gods of my father Pentephres are but for a season and uncertain; but the inhabitants of thine inheritance, O Lord, are incorruptible and eternal.

Chapter Thirteen

1. Look upon my ophanhood, O Lord, for unto thee did I flee, O Lord.

2. Lo, I took off my royal robe interwoven with gold and put on a black tunic instead.

3. Lo, I loosed my golden girdle and girt myself with a rope and sackcloth.

4. Lo, I threw off my diadem from my head and sprinkled myself with ashes.

5. Lo, the floor of my room once scattered with stones of different colors and of purple, and besprinkled with myrrh, is now sprinkled with my tears and scattered with ashes.

6. Lo, Lord, from the ashes and from my tears there is as much mud inside my room as there is on a public highway.

7. Lo, Lord, my royal dinner and my fatted beasts have I given to the dogs.

8. And lo, for seven days and seven nights I have neither eaten bread nor drunk water; and my mouth is dry like a drum and my tongue like horn, and my lips like a potsherd, and my face is shrunken, and my eyes are failing as a result of my incessant tears.

9. But do thou, O Lord, pardon me, for in ignorance did I sin against thee and uttered calumnies against my lord Joseph.

10. And I did not know, wretch that I am, that he is thy son, O Lord; for they told me that Joseph was a shepherd's son from the land of Canaan, and I believed them; but I was wrong, and I despised Joseph, thine elect one, and I spoke evil of him, not knowing that he is thy son.

11. For what man ever was so handsome and who else is as wise and strong as Joseph? But to thee, my Lord, do I entrust him; for I love him more than mine own soul.

12. Preserve him in the wisdom of thy grace, and give me to him as a servant, so that I may wash his feet and serve him and be his slave for all the seasons of my life.

Chapter Fourteen

1. And as Aseneth finished her confession to the Lord, lo, the morning star rose in the eastern sky.

2. And Aseneth saw it and rejoiced and said, "The Lord God has indeed heard me, for this star is a messenger and herald of the light of the great day.

3. And lo, the heaven was torn open near the morning star and an indescribable light appeared.

4. And Aseneth fell on her face upon the ashes; and there came to her a man from heaven and stood at her head; and he called to her, "Aseneth".

5. And she said, "Who called me? For the door of my room is shut and the tower is high: how then did anyone get into my room?"

6. And the man called her a second time and said, "Aseneth, Aseneth;" and she said, "Here am I, my lord, tell me who you are."

7. And the man said, "I am the commander of the Lord's house and chief captain of all the host of the Most High: stand up, and I will speak to you."

8. And she looked up and saw a man like Joseph in every respect, with a robe and a crown and a royal staff.

9. But his face was like lightning, and his eyes were like the light of the sun, and the hairs of his head like flames of fire, and his hands and feet like iron from the fire.

10. And Aseneth looked at him, and she fell on her face at his feet in great fear and trembling. 11. And the man said to her, "Take heart, Aseneth, and do not be afraid; but stand up, and I will speak to you."

12. And Aseneth got up, and the man said to her, "Take off the black tunic you are wearing and the sackcloth round your waist, and shake the ashes off your head, and wash your face with water.

13. And put on a new robe that you have never worn before, and tie your bright girdle round your waist -- the double girdle of your virginity.

14. And then come back to me, and I will tell you what I have been sent to you to say."

15. And Aseneth went into the room where her treasure-chests and the finery for her adornment were; and she opened her wardrobe and took out a new, fine robe, and she took off her black robe and put on the new and brilliant one.

16. And she untied the rope and the sackcloth round her waist; and she put on the brilliant double girdle of her virginity -- one girdle round her waist and the other round her breast.

17. And she shook the ashes off her head, and washed her face with pure water, and covered her head with a fine and lovely veil.

Chapter Fifteen

1. And she came back to the man; and when the man saw her he said to her, "Take now the veil off your head, for to-day you are a pure virgin and your head is like a young man's."

2. So she took it off her head; and the man said to her, "Take heart, Aseneth, for lo, the Lord has heard the words of your confession.

3. Take heart, Aseneth, your name is written in the book of life, and it will never be blotted out.

4. From to-day you will be made new, and refashioned, and given new life; and you shall eat the bread of life and drink the cup of immortality, and be anointed with the unction of incorruption.

5. Take heart, Aseneth: lo, the Lord has given you to Joseph to be his bride, and he shall be your bridegroom.

6. And you shall no more be called Aseneth, but 'City of Refuge' shall be your name; for many nations shall take refuge in you, and under your wings shall many peoples find shelter, and within your walls those who give their allegiance to God in penitence will find security.

7. For Penitence is the Most High's daughter and she entreats the Most High on your behalf every hour, and on behalf of all who repent; for he is the father of Penitence and she the mother of virgins, and every hour she petitions him for those who repent; for she has prepared a heavenly bridal chamber for those who love her, and she will look after them for ever.

8. And Penitence is herself a virgin, very beautiful and pure and chaste and gentle; and God Most High loves her, and all his angels do her reverence.

9. And lo, I am on my way to Joseph, and I will talk to him about you, and he will come to you to-day and see you and rejoice over you; and he shall be your bridegroom.

10. So listen to me, Aseneth, and put on your wedding robe, the ancient robe, the first that was stored away in your room, and deck yourself in all your finest jewelry, and adorn yourself as a bride, and be ready to meet him.

11. For lo, he is coming to you to-day; and he will see you and rejoice."

12. And when the man had finished speaking Aseneth was overjoyed.

13. And she fell at his feet and said to him, "Blessed be the Lord God that sent you out to deliver me from darkness and bring me into light; and blessed be his name for ever.

14. Let me speak now, my lord, if I have found favor with you: sit down a little on the bed, and I will get a table ready and food for you to eat; and I will bring you good wine, of the finest flavor, for your to drink; and then you shall go your way."

Chapter Sixteen

1. And the man said to her, "Bring me, please, a honeycomb too."

2. And Aseneth said, "Let me send someone my lord, to my family estate in the country and I will get you a honeycomb."

3. And the man said to her, "Go into your inner room and you will find a honeycomb there."

4. And Aseneth went into her inner room and found a honeycomb lying on the table; and the comb was as white as snow and full of honey, and its smell was like the breath of life.

5. And Aseneth took the comb and brought it to him; and the man said to her, "Why did you say, 'There is no honeycomb in my house?' And lo, you have brought me this."

6. And Aseneth said, My lord, I had no honeycomb in my house, but it happened just as you said:

did it perchance come out of your mouth, for it smells like myrrh?"

7. And the man stretched his hand out and placed it on her head and said, "You are blessed, Aseneth, for the indescribable things of God have been revealed to you; and blessed too are those who give their allegiance to the Lord God in penitence, for they shall eat of this comb.

8. The bees of the Paradise of Delight have made this honey, and the angels of God eat of it, and no one who eats of it shall ever die.

9. And the man stretched his right hand out and broke off a piece of the comb and ate it; and he put a piece of it unto Aseneth's mouth.

10. And the man stretched his hand out and put his finger on the edge of the comb that faced eastwards; and the path of his finger became like blood.

11. And he stretched out his hand a second time and put his finger on the edge of the comb that faced northwards, and the path of his finger became like blood.

12. And Aseneth was standing on the left and watching everything the man was doing.

13. And bees came up from the cells of the comb, and they were white as snow, and their wings were iridescent -- purple and blue and gold; and they had golden diadems on their heads and sharp-pointed strings.

14. And all the bees flew in circles round Aseneth, from her feet right up to her head; and yet more bees, as big as queens, settled on Aseneth's lips.

15. And the man said to the bees, "Go, please, to your places."

16. And they all left Aseneth and fell to the ground, every one of them, and died.

17. And the man said, "Get up now, and go to your place;" and they got up and went, every one of them, to the court round Aseneth's tower.

Chapter Seventeen

1. And the man said to Aseneth, "Have you observed this?" and she said, "Yes, my lord, I have observed it all."

2. And the man said, "So shall be the words I have spoken to you."

3. And the man touched the comb, and fire went up from the table and burnt up the comb; and, as it burned, the comb gave out a refreshing fragrance that filled the room.

4. And Aseneth said to the man, "There are, my lord, seven virgins with me, who have been brought up with me, and who wait upon me: they were born in the same night as I was and I love them: let me call them, so that you can bless them as you have blessed me.

5. And the man said, "Call them;" and Aseneth called them, and the man blessed them and said, "God, the Most High, will bless you for ever."

6. And the man said to Aseneth, "Take this table away;" and Aseneth turned to move the table, and the man vanished out of her sight, and Aseneth saw what looked like a chariot of fire being taken up into heaven towards the east.

7. And Aseneth said, "Be merciful, O Lord, to thy maidservant, because it was in ignorance that I spoke evil before thee."

Chapter Eighteen

1. And while this was happening, behold, a young man, one of Joseph's servants, came and said, "Lo, Joseph, the mighty man of God is coming to you to-day."

2. And Aseneth called her steward and said, "Get ready a special dinner for me, because Joseph the mighty man of God, is coming to us."

3. And Aseneth went into her room and opened her wardrobe, and she took out her finest robe that shone like lightning, and she put it on.

4. And she tied a resplendent royal girdle round her waist -- and this girdle was of precious stones.

5. And she put golden bracelets round her hands, and golden boots on her feet, and a costly necklace about her neck; and she put a golden crown upon her head, and in the crown, in front, were the costliest of stones.

6. And she covered her head with a veil.

7. And she said to her maidservant, "Bring me pure water from the spring. And Aseneth bent down to the water in the basin [on the cockle-shell]; and her face was like the sun, and her eyes like the rising morning star.

Chapter Nineteen

And a little slave came and said to Aseneth, "Lo, Joseph is at the gates of our court;" and Aseneth went down with the seven virgins to meet him.

2. And when Joseph saw her, he said to her, "Come to me, pure virgin, for I have had good news about you from heaven, explaining everything about you."

3. And Joseph stretched his hands out and embraced Aseneth, and Aseneth embraced Joseph, and they greeted each other for a long time and received new life in their spirit.

Chapter Twenty

1. And Aseneth said to him, "Come, my lord, come into my house;" and she took his right hand and brought him inside her house.

2. And Joseph sat down on her father Pentephres's seat, and she brought water to wash his feet; and Joseph said to her, "Let one of your virgins come, and let her wash my feet."

3. And Aseneth said to him, "No, my lord, for my hands are your hands, and your feet my feet, and no one else shall wash your feet;" and so she had her way and washed his feet.

4. And Joseph took her by the right hand and kissed it, and Aseneth kissed his head.

5. And Aseneth's parents came back from their country estate, and they saw Aseneth sitting with Joseph and wearing a wedding robe; and they rejoiced and glorified God, and they ate and drank.

6. And Pentephres said to Joseph, "To-morrow I will invite the lords and satraps of Egypt, and I will celebrate your wedding, and you shall take Aseneth as your wife."

7. And Joseph said, "First I must tell Pharaoh about Aseneth, because he is my father; and he will give me Aseneth as my wife himself."

8. And Joseph stayed that day with Pentephres; and he did not sleep with Aseneth, for he said, "It is not right for a man who worships God to have intercourse with his wife before their marriage."

Chapter Twenty-One

1. And Joseph got up early in the morning, and he sent away to Pharaoh and told him about Aseneth.

2. And Pharaoh sent and called Pentephres and Aseneth.

3. And Pharaoh was astonished at her beauty and said, "The Lord will bless you, even the God of Joseph, who has chosen you to be his bride, for he is the first-born son of God, and you will be called daughter of the Most High, and Joseph shall be your bridegroom for ever.

4. And Pharaoh took golden crowns and put them on their heads and said,

5. "God Most High will bless you and prosper your family for ever."

6. And Pharaoh turned them towards each other, and they kissed each other. And Pharaoh celebrated their wedding with a banquet and much merry-making for seven days; and he invited all the chief men in the land of Egypt.

7. And he issued a proclamation, saying, "Any man who does any work during the seven days of Joseph and Aseneth's wedding shall die."

8. And when the wedding was over and the banquet ended, Joseph had intercourse with Aseneth; and Aseneth conceived by Joseph and bore Manasseh and his brother Ephraim in Joseph's house.

Chapter Twenty-Two

1. And after this the seven years of plenty came to an end, and the seven years of famine began.

2. And when Jacob heard about his son Joseph, he came into Egypt with his family, in the second month, on the twenty-first day of the month; and he settled in the land of Goshen.

3. And Aseneth said to Joseph, "I will go and see your father, because your father Israel is my father; and Joseph said to her, "Let us go together."

4. And Joseph and Aseneth came into the land of Goshen, and Joseph's brothers met them and made obeisance to them upon the ground.

5. And they came to Jacob and he blessed them and kissed them; and Aseneth hung upon his father Jacob's neck and kissed him.

6. And after this they ate and drank.

7. And Joseph and Aseneth went to their house, and Simeon and Levi escorted them, to protect them: Levi was on Aseneth's right hand and Simeon on the left.

8. And Aseneth took Levi's hand because she loved him as a man who was a prophet and a worshiper of God and a man who feared the Lord. And he used to see letters written in the heavens, and he would read them and interpret them to Aseneth privately; and Levi saw the place of her rest in the highest heaven.

Chapter Twenty-Three

1. And as Joseph and Aseneth were passing by, Pharaoh's eldest son saw them from the wall.

2. And when he saw Aseneth he was driven to distraction by her because she was so beautiful; and Pharaoh's son sent messengers and summoned Simeon and Levi to him, and they came to him and stood before him.

3. And Pharaoh's son said to them, "I have heard that you are better soldiers than any others there are on earth, and that with your own right hands you destroyed the city of Schechem and with your own two swords you cut to pieces thirty thousand fighting men.

4. I need your help: let us get together without delay; and I will give you gold and silver in abundance, and menservants and maidservants, and houses and great estates. Make a compact with me, and shew kindness to me; for I was greatly wronged by your brother Joseph, because he married Aseneth although she was originally pledged to me.

5. And now come with me, and I will take up arms against Joseph and kill him with my sword, and I will marry Aseneth; and you shall be my brothers and my friends for ever,

6. But if you will not listen to me, I will kill you with my sword" (and as he said this he bared his sword and showed it them).

7. Now Simeon was a brave but impetuous man, and he drew his sword from its scabbard and made a rush at Pharaoh's son, as if to strike him.

8. And Levi was aware of what Simeon was about to do, for Levi was a prophet and foresaw everything that was to happen; and Levi trod hard on Simon's right foot as a sign to him to curb his wrath.

9. And Levi said to him, "Why so angry with him? For we are the children of a man who worships God, and it is not right for a man who worships God to repay his neighbor evil for evil."

10. And Levi said to his neighbor, Pharaoh's son, respectfully and in good humor, "My lord, why do you speak to us like this? For we are men who worship God, and our father is the servant of God Most High, and our brother Joseph is loved by God: how could we do anything so wicked in God's eyes?

11. And now, listen to us, and be careful you never repeat what you have just said about our brother Joseph.

12. If, however, you persist in this wicked plan, see, our swords are drawn against you."

13. And they drew their swords from their scabbards and said, "Do you see these swords? It was with them that the Lord God avenged the outrage on the sons of Israel, which the men of Schechem committed in the affair of our sister Dinah, whom Schechem, Hamor's son, defiled."

14. And Pharaoh's son saw their drawn swords, and he was afraid and trembled and fell on his face to the ground at their feet.

15. And Levi stretched his hand out and lifted him up, saying, "Do not be afraid: only be careful you say nothing against our brother."

16. And they went out from him, leaving him trembling and afraid.

Chapter Twenty-Four

1. And Pharaoh's son was in much affliction and torment because of Aseneth, and he was greatly distressed.

2. And his servants whispered in his ear, "Lo, the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, the maidservants of Leah and Rachel, Jacob's wives, hate Joseph and Aseneth and are jealous of them, and they will do what you want."

3. And Pharaoh's son sent messengers and summoned them, and they came to him by night; and Pharaoh's son said to them, "I have heard that your are good soldiers."

4. And Gad and Dan, the elder brothers, said to Pharaoh's son, "Let our lord tell his servants what it is he wants, and he will do it."

5.And Pharaoh's son was overjoyed, and he said to his servants, "Go away and leave us alone, for I have something to say to these men privately."

6. And all the servants went out; and Pharaoh's son told them lies, saying, "I offer you a choice between prosperity and death: so choose prosperity and not death.

7. I know that you are good soldiers, and that you will not die as women die; but act like men and take vengeance on your enemies.

8. I heard" (he continued "your brother Joseph say to my father Pharaoh, 'Dan and Gad are the children of maidservants and are not my brothers.

9. And I am only waiting for my father to die to take action against them and all their progeny, so that they will not share the inheritance with us, for they are the children of maidservants, and it was they who sold me to the Ishmaelites. 1

0. When my father is dead I will repay them for the wrong they did me.'

11. And my father Pharaoh commended Joseph and said to him, 'What you have said is quite right, my son; and now take some of my soldiers and proceed against them as they did against you, and I will help you.'"

12. And when the men heard what Pharaoh's son told them they were much troubled and distressed, and they said to him, "We appeal to you, our lord, to help us; and whatever you tell your servants to do, we will do it."

13. And Pharaoh's son said to them, "To-night I will kill my father, for my father Pharaoh is like a father to Joseph; and do you also kill Joseph, and I will marry Aseneth."

14. And Dan and Gad said to him, "We will do everything you have told us to. We overheard Joseph say to Aseneth, 'Go to-morrow to our country estate, for it is vintage-time; and he has arranged for six hundred armed soldiers to go with her and fifty outrunners."

15. And when Pharaoh's son heard this, he gave the four men five hundred men each and appointed them their officers and commanders.

16. And Dan and Gad said to him, "We will go by night and lie in wait at the brook and hide in the woods on the banks.

17. And as for you, take fifty men with you, archers on horseback, and go on ahead, some distance in front; and Aseneth will come and fall into our hands,and we will cut down the men who are with her.

18. And Aseneth will flee in her chariot and fall into your hands and you will be able to deal with her as you wish.

19. And afterwards we will kill Joseph while he is fretting about Aseneth; and we will kill his children before his eyes."

20. And Pharaoh's son was delighted when he heard this, and he sent two thousand soldiers after them.

21. And they came to the brook and hid in the woods on the banks, and five hundred men took up their position in front; and in between them was a highway.

Chapter Twenty-Five

1. And Pharaoh's son went to his father's room to kill him; but his father's guards would not allow him to go in to him.

2. And Pharaoh's son said to them, "I want to see my father because I am going off to gather the grapes from my newly planted vine

3. And the guards said to him, "Your father is in pain, and he has been awake all night; but he is resting now; and he said to us, "Do not let anyone in to me, not even my eldest son."

4. And he went away in anger; and he took fifty mounted archers, and he went in front of them as Dan and Gad had told him to.

5. And Naphtali and Asher said to Dan and Gad, "Why must you plot again against our father Israel and against our brother Joseph? For God looks after him as if he were the apple of his eye.

6. Did you not once sell Joseph as a slave, and to-day he is king of the whole earth, and its saviour, and gives us corn?

7. And now, if you make plots against him again, he will call upon the God of Israel, and he will send fire from heaven, and it will burn you up, and the angels of God will fight against you."

8. And their elder brothers Dan and Gad were angry with them, saying, "Are we then to die like women? God forbid!" And they went out to encounter Joseph and Aseneth.

Chapter Twenty-Six

1. And Aseneth got up early in the morning and said to Joseph, "I am going to our estate in the country; but I am frightened because you are not coming with me."

2. And Joseph said to her, "Take heart and do not be afraid, but go; for the Lord is with you and he will keep you from all evil as the apple of an eye.

3. And I will go and distribute my corn, and give corn to all the men in the city, so that no one dies of famine in the land of Egypt."

4. And Aseneth departed on her journey and Joseph to the distribution of the corn.

5. And Aseneth came to where the brook was with her six hundred men; and suddenly the men that were with Pharaoh's son leaped out from their ambush and joined battle with Aseneth's soldiers, and they cut them down with their swords and killed all Aseneth's outrunners.

6. And Aseneth fled in her chariot.

7. And Levi, the son of Leah, was informed about all this (for he was a prophet), and he told his brothers about Aseneth's danger; and they took, each one of them, his sword on his thigh, and their shields on their arms, and their spears in their right hands, and they went after Aseneth with what speed they could.

8. And Aseneth fled, and lo, Pharaoh's son met her, and fifty men with him; and Aseneth saw him, and she was afraid and trembled.

Chapter Twenty-Seven

1. And Benjamin was sitting with her in the chariot.

2. And Benjamin was a sturdy lad, about eighteen years old, indescribably handsome, and as strong as a young lion; and he feared God.

3. And Benjamin jumped down from the chariot, and he took a round stone from the brook and hurled it with all his might at Pharaoh's son and hit him on his left temple and wounded him severely, and he fell from his horse half-dead.

4. And Benjamin clambered up on a rock and said to the driver of Aseneth's chariot, "Give me fifty stones from the brook;" and he gave him fifty stones.

5. And Benjamin hurled the stones and killed the fifty men that were with Pharaoh's son; and the stones sank into the temples of each one of them.

6. Then the sons of Leah, Reuben and Simeon, Levi and Judah, Issachar and Zebulon, went after the men who had lain in ambush; and they fell upon them suddenly, and cut down the two thousand men, and the six of them killed them.

7. And their brothers, the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, fled; and they said, "We have been ruined through our brothers; and Pharaoh's son is dead, killed by Benjamin, and all those with him have perished at his hand: come now, let us kill Aseneth [and Benjamin], and let us make for the woods."

8. And they came, with their swords drawn, covered in blood; and Aseneth saw them, and she said, "O Lord my God, that didst quicken me from death, that didst say to me, 'Thy soul shall live for ever, deliver me from these men.'" And the Lord God heard her voice, and immediately their swords fell from t heir hands to the ground and were reduced to dust.

Chapter Twenty-Eight

1. And the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah saw the miracle that had happened and they were afraid and said, "The Lord is fighting for Aseneth against us."

2. And they fell on their faces to the ground and made obeisance to Aseneth, saying, "Have mercy on us, your servants, for you are our mistress and queen, and we have done you a great wrong and our brother Joseph.

3. And now God has brought retribution on us: we pray you, therefore, have mercy on us, and deliver us from our brothers' hands, for they will avenge the outrage done to you and their swords will be against us."

4. And Aseneth said to them, "Take heart and do not be afraid, for your brothers are men who worship God, and do not repay evil for evil to any man.

5. But retire to the woods until I can secure your pardon and mollify their wrath; for what you have been trying to do to them is indeed no trifling matter.

6. Take heart, though, and do not be afraid, for the Lord will see justice done between us."

7. And Dan and Gad fled to the woods.

8. And behold, the sons of Leah came, running like deers in pursuit of them; and Aseneth got down from her chariot, and she greeted them with tears.

9. And they made obeisance to her on the ground and wept aloud; and they asked about their brothers, the maidservants' sons, intending to kill them.

10. And Aseneth said to them, "Spare you brothers and do them no harm, for the Lord has shielded me and reduced the swords in their hands to dust, and they melted away like wax before the fire.

11. Surely this is enough for us that the Lord is fighting for us: so spare your brothers."

12. And Simeon said to Aseneth, "Why should our mistress plead for her enemies?

13 No! We will cut them down with our swords, because they have plotted evil against our father Israel and against our brother Joseph now on two occasions, and they have plotted against you to-day."

14. And Aseneth said to him , "No brother, you must not repay evil for evil to your neighbor, for the Lord will avenge this outrage."

15. And after this Simeon bowed to Aseneth; and Levi came to her, and he kissed her right hand and blessed her.

16. Thus Aseneth saved the men from their brothers' wrath, so that they did not kill them.

Chapter Twenty-Nine

1. And Pharaoh's son lifted himself up from the ground and sat up; and he spat blood from his mouth, because his blood was running from his temple into his mouth.

2. And Benjamin advanced upon him and took hold of his sword and drew it from its scabbard (for Benjamin had no sword of his own with him).

3. And as he was about to strike Pharaoh's son, Levi rushed up and seized him by the hand and said, "No brother, you must not do this, for we are men who worship God, and it is not right for a man who worships God to repay evil for evil, or to trample upon a man who has already fallen, or to harry his enemy to death.

4. But come: let us bind up his wound; and if he lives, he will be our friend, and his father Pharaoh will be our father."

5. And Levi raised Pharaoh's son up and washed the blood off his face and bound a bandage round his wound; and he set him on his horse and took him to his father.

6. And Levi told him everything that had happened.

7. And Pharaoh got up from his throne and made obeisance to Levi upon the ground.

8. And on the third day Pharaoh's son died from the wound of Benjamin's stone.

9. And Pharaoh mourned for his eldest son, and he was worn out with grief.

10. And Pharaoh died at the age of one hundred and nine; and he left his crown to Joseph.

11. And Joseph was king of Egypt for forty-eight years.

12. And after this Joseph gave the crown to Pharaoh's grandson; and Joseph was like a father to him in Egypt.

Text from Joseph and Aseneth H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), The Apocryphal Old Testament and is reproduced here for educational purposes only

Sunday, July 13, 2008


Occasionally, I come across someone that would like me to prove that the Book of Mormon is true. If they are a believer in the Bible (which I am - and not just the parts that are convenient to believe, but ALL of of it), then I remind them to pursue their intellectual critique of the Book of Mormon with the same latitude and slack that they would like non-believers of the Bible to give that fine work. Slowly evidences are coming to light that are shining very favorable light on the Bible. The same applies to the Book of Mormon. Here is a great link that sheds light on some common critics' traps they like to set for believers in the Book of Mormon (I remember hearing most of these growing up - and it is fun to see them shot down):

Hopefully, people will just take the book and actually read it. It is amazing how many people are arm-chair critics and have never read it for them selves. I suppose finding out that something is true might precipitate the possibility of change in one's life to conform to new and enlarging truth - and that change is always frightening when we have to give up our alcohol, sex outside of marriage, coffee, an entire culture of service of our fellow-man, true Sabbath day worship, and an entire host of other things that our current set of dictates allow in our current less-lofty perch.

Wednesday, July 9, 2008


PSYCHIATRISTS have detected the first case of "climate change delusion" - and they haven't even yet got to Kevin Rudd and his global warming guru.

Writing in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Joshua Wolf and Robert Salo of our Royal Children's Hospital say this delusion was a "previously unreported phenomenon".

"A 17-year-old man was referred to the inpatient psychiatric unit at Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne with an eight-month history of depressed mood . . . He also . . . had visions of apocalyptic events."

(So have Alarmist of the Year Tim Flannery, Profit of Doom Al Gore and Sir Richard Brazen, but I digress.)

"The patient had also developed the belief that, due to climate change, his own water consumption could lead within days to the deaths of millions of people through exhaustion of water supplies."

But never mind the poor boy, who became too terrified even to drink. What's scarier is that people in charge of our Government seem to suffer from this "climate change delusion", too.

Here is Prime Minister Kevin Rudd yesterday, with his own apocalyptic vision: "If we do not begin reducing the nation's levels of carbon pollution, Australia's economy will face more frequent and severe droughts, less water, reduced food production and devastation of areas such as the Great Barrier Reef and Kakadu wetlands."

And here is a senior Sydney Morning Herald journalist aghast at the horrors described in the report on global warming released on Friday by Rudd's guru, Professor Ross Garnaut: "Australians must pay more for petrol, food and energy or ultimately face a rising death toll . . ."

Wow. Pay more for food or die. Is that Rudd's next campaign slogan?

Of course, we can laugh at this -- and must -- but the price for such folly may soon be your job, or at least your cash.

Rudd and Garnaut want to scare you into backing their plan to force people who produce everything from petrol to coal-fired electricity, from steel to soft drinks, to pay for licences to emit carbon dioxide -- the gas they think is heating the world to hell.

The cost of those licences, totalling in the billions, will then be passed on to you through higher bills for petrol, power, food, housing, air travel and anything else that uses lots of gassy power. In some countries they're even planning to tax farting cows, so there's no end to the ways you can be stung.

Rudd hopes this pain will make you switch to expensive but less gassy alternatives, and -- hey presto -- the world's temperature will then fall, just like it's actually done since the day Al Gore released An Inconvenient Truth.

But you'll have spotted already the big flaw in Rudd's mad plan -- one that confirms he and Garnaut really do have delusions.

The truth is Australia on its own emits less than 1.5 per cent of the world's carbon dioxide. Any savings we make will make no real difference, given that China (now the biggest emitter) and India (the fourth) are booming so fast that they alone will pump out 42 per cent of the world's greenhouse gases by 2030.

Indeed, so fast are the world's emissions growing -- by 3.1 per cent a year thanks mostly to these two giants -- that the 20 per cent cuts Rudd demands of Australians by 2020 would be swallowed up in just 28 days. That's how little our multi-billions of dollars in sacrifices will matter.

And that's why Rudd's claim that we'll be ruined if we don't cut Australia's gases is a lie. To be blunt.

Ask Rudd's guru. Garnaut on Friday admitted any cuts we make will be useless unless they inspire other countries to do the same -- especially China and India: "Only a global agreement has any prospect of reducing risks of dangerous climate change to acceptable levels."

So almost everything depends on China and India copying us. But the chances of that? A big, round zero.

A year ago China released its own global warming strategy -- its own Garnaut report -- which bluntly refused to cut its total emissions.

Said Ma Kai, head of China's powerful State Council: "China does not commit to any quantified emissions-reduction commitments . . . our efforts to fight climate change must not come at the expense of economic growth."

In fact, we had to get used to more gas from China, not less: "It is quite inevitable that during this (industrialisation) stage, China's energy consumption and CO2 emissions will be quite high."

Last month, India likewise issued its National Action Plan on Climate Change, and also rejected Rudd-style cuts.

The plan's authors, the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change, said India would rather save its people from poverty than global warming, and would not cut growth to cut gases.

"It is obvious that India needs to substantially increase its per capita energy consumption to provide a minimally acceptable level of wellbeing to its people."

The plan's only real promise was in fact a threat: "India is determined that its per capita greenhouse gas emissions will at no point exceed that of developed countries."

Gee, thanks. That, of course, means India won't stop its per capita emissions (now at 1.02 tonnes) from growing until they match those of countries such as the US (now 20 tonnes). Given it has one billion people, that's a promise to gas the world like it's never been gassed before.

So is this our death warrant? Should this news have you seeing apocalyptic visions, too?

Well, no. What makes the Indian report so interesting is that unlike our Ross Garnaut, who just accepted the word of those scientists wailing we faced doom, the Indian experts went to the trouble to check what the climate was actually doing and why.

Their conclusion? They couldn't actually find anything bad in India that was caused by man-made warming: "No firm link between the documented (climate) changes described below and warming due to anthropogenic climate change has yet been established."

In fact, they couldn't find much change in the climate at all.

Yes, India's surface temperature over a century had inched up by 0.4 degrees, but there had been no change in trends for large-scale droughts and floods, or rain: "The observed monsoon rainfall at the all-India level does not show any significant trend . . ."

It even dismissed the panic Al Gore helped to whip up about melting Himalayan glaciers: "While recession of some glaciers has occurred in some Himalayan regions in recent years, the trend is not consistent across the entire mountain chain. It is, accordingly, too early to establish long-term trends, or their causation, in respect of which there are several hypotheses."

Nor was that the only sign that India's Council on Climate Change had kept its cool while our Rudd and Garnaut lost theirs.

For example, the Indians rightly insisted nuclear power had to be part of any real plan to cut emissions. Rudd and Garnaut won't even discuss it.

The Indians also pointed out that no feasible technology to trap and bury the gasses of coal-fired power stations had yet been developed "and there are serious questions about the cost as well (as) permanence of the CO2 storage repositories".

Rudd and Garnaut, however, keep offering this dream to make us think our power stations can survive their emissions trading scheme, when state governments warn they may not.

In every case the Indians are pragmatic where Rudd and Garnaut are having delusions -- delusions about an apocalypse, about cutting gases without going nuclear, about saving power stations they'll instead drive broke.

And there's that delusion on which their whole plan is built -- that India and China will follow our sacrifice by cutting their throats, too.

So psychiatrists are treating a 17-year-old tipped over the edge by global warming fearmongers?

Pray that their next patients will be two men whose own delusions threaten to drive our whole economy over the edge as well.

Monday, July 7, 2008


Brian Handwerk
for National Geographic News

May 28, 2002
Ancient stories of massive floods pass from generation to generation and in many places in the world are integral to a people's spoken history.

The tales differ by locale, but commonly feature torrential rains or a hugely destructive wall of water bursting into a valley, destroying everything in its path. In many cases, the flooding is an act of retribution by displeased gods.

Black Sea @
Search for "Lost" Atlantis Centers on Strait of Gibraltar
Floods Swept Ancient Nile Cities Away, Expert Says

Many scientists, historians and archaeologists view these enduring tales as short, dramatised versions of the memory of rising seas at the end of the Ice Age. Like all good stories, they are rich with local drama, religious legends, and moral principles.

While images of catastrophic floods are popular, many scholars argue that the real rising sea level slowly invaded the Stone Age hunting territories for thousands of years, and the stories compress this event into overnight floods, storms, and destruction.

Recent undersea findings may yield new clues to the study of human habitations that now lie beneath the waves.

Cuba's Sunken City

Deep in the waters of Cabo de San Antonio, off Cuba's coast, researchers are exploring unusual formations of smooth blocks, crests, and geometric shapes. The Canadian exploration company that discovered the formations, Advanced Digital Communications, has suggested that they could be the buildings and monuments of an early, unknown American civilization.

Many scientists are skeptical of any theory that might tempt people to draw a parallel with the fabled lost city of Atlantis. Geologist Manuel Iturralde, however, has stressed the need for an open mind while investigations of the site continue.

"These are extremely peculiar structures, and they have captured our imagination," said Iturralde, who is director of research at Cuba's Natural History Museum. Iturralde has studied countless underwater formations over the years, but said, "If I had to explain this geologically, I would have a hard time."

In his report on the formations, Iturralde noted that conclusive proof of man-made structures on the site could reinforce some oral traditions of the Maya and native Yucatecos. These people still retell ancient stories of an island inhabited by their ancestors that vanished beneath the waves.

Iturralde makes it clear, however, that just because no natural explanation is immediately apparent, it doesn't rule one out. "Nature is able to create some really unimaginable structures," he said.

Further research is scheduled to take place over the summer. Data thus far has been collected using sonar scans and video. The structures are buried under 1,900 to 2,500 feet (600 to 750 meters) of water.





Minister uses NASA forecasting to study signals of Jesus' return
Posted: April 30, 200811:49 pm Eastern
By Joe Kovacs© 2008 WorldNetDaily

Total lunar eclipses often make the moon appear red
Will Jesus Christ return to Earth in the year 2015? And can studying NASA's website provide evidence for such a scenario?A minister who promotes the Old Testament roots of Christianity suggests a rare string of lunar and solar eclipses said to fall on God's annual holy days seven years from now could herald what's come to be known as the "Second Coming" of Jesus."God wants us to look at the biblical calendar," says Mark Biltz, pastor of El Shaddai Ministries in Bonney Lake, Wash. "The reason we need to be watching is [because] He will signal His appearance. But we have to know what to be watching as well. So we need to be watching the biblical holidays."In a video interview on the Prophecy in the News website, Biltz said he's been studying prophecies that focus on the sun and moon, even going back to the book of Genesis where it states the lights in the sky would be "be for signs, and for seasons.""It means a signal, kind of like 'one if by land, two if by sea.' It's like God wants to signal us," he said. "The Hebrew word implies ... not only is it a signal, but it's a signal for coming or His appearing."
(Story continues below)

Biltz adds the word "seasons" implies appointed times for God's feasts and festivals."When we hear the word feast, we think food. But the Hebrew word has nothing to do with food. It has to do with a divine appointment, as if God has a day timer, and He says, 'OK, I'm gonna mark the day and the time when I'm going to signal My appearance.'"In the Old Testament, the prophet Joel states, "The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come." (Joel 2:31)In the New Testament, Jesus is quoted as saying, "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light ... And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." (Matthew 24:29-30)Gary Stearman of Prophecy in the News noted, "When we think of the sun being darkened and the moon not giving her light, we usually think of some astronomical catastrophe – perhaps the sun sputtering and the moon being affected by all this. But maybe it's time to rethink this a little bit and think of it as a natural cycle, the cycle of the eclipses."
Phases of lunar and solar eclipses on NASA's eclipse website
Thus, Biltz began focusing on the precise times of both solar and lunar eclipses, sometimes called "blood moons" since the moon often takes on a bloody color. He logged onto NASA's eclipse website which provides precision tracking of the celestial events.He noted a rare phenomenon of four consecutive total lunar eclipses, known as a tetrad.He says during this century, tetrads occur at least six times, but what's interesting is that the only string of four consecutive blood moons that coincide with God's holy days of Passover in the spring and the autumn's Feast of Tabernacles (also called Succoth) occurs between 2014 and 2015 on today's Gregorian calendar."The fact that it doesn't happen again in this century I think is very significant," Biltz explains. "So then I looked at last century, and, believe it or not, the last time that four blood red moons occurred together was in 1967 and 1968 tied to Jerusalem recaptured by Israel."He then started to notice a pattern of the tetrads."What's significant to me is that even before 1967, the next time that you had four blood red moons again was right after Israel became a nation in '48, it happened again in 1949 and 1950 ... on Passover and Succoth. You didn't have any astronomical tetrads in the 1800s, the 1700s, the 1600s. In the 1500s, there were six, but none of those fell on Passover and Succoth."When checking the schedule for solar eclipses, Biltz found two – one on the first day of the Hebrew year and the next on the high holy day of Rosh Hashanah, the first day of the seventh Hebrew month. Both of these take place in the 2014-2015 year.
The sun's corona becomes visible during a solar eclipse
Biltz says, "You have the religious year beginning with the total solar eclipse, two weeks later a total lunar eclipse on Passover, and then the civil year beginning with the solar eclipse followed two weeks later by another total blood red moon on the Feast of Succoth all in 2015.""If you think that this is a coincidence, I want you to know that it's time!" exclaimed Prophecy in the News host J.R. Church. "There are no more of these for the rest of the century."The prospect of eclipses pinpointing the time of Jesus' return is getting mixed reaction in Christian circles.After seeing Biltz's interview, Jim Bramlett, an author and former vice president for the Christian Broadcasting Network, expressed excitement. "I have just watched the program two times and do not think I have ever been more encouraged or excited about the soon return of the Lord!" Bramlett said.But Hal Lindsey, a well-known biblical analyst and author of "The Late Great Planet Earth," says while he hasn't heard of Biltz's theory, he called it "pure speculation.""In my 50-something years of studying prophecy, to me the greatest indication of the time of Christ's return is based around the general things of prophecies coming together in the same time frame."He mentioned not only Israel's birth as a political state in 1948, but the increase in tensions with Muslims, the rise of Russia, China and the European Union, which he says is even "calling itself the revived Roman Empire.""I see the whole sweep and panorama spinning together in a precise scenario," he said.During a second video interview, Biltz was presented with Bible quotes that many think suggest Jesus' return will be a complete surprise, or at least not specifically known.The 25th chapter of Matthew features a parable where Jesus likens His kingdom to ten virgins all waiting for the arrival of their bridegroom.Jesus said in the story, "ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh." (Matthew 25:13)Biltz says people need to examine the quote in its proper context."When He says you don't know the day or the hour, He's speaking to the foolish virgins, not the wise virgins," he explained.Biltz was also asked about the famous statement in Matthew 24:36 when Jesus was discussing the signs of His "coming, and of the end of the world": "But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only." (Matthew 24:36)He responded by referring to the annual Feast of Trumpets holiday, saying Israelites never knew the precise moment it began, "because it was based on the sighting of the new moon." "When He (Jesus) says you won't know the day or the hour, He's telling you it's the Feast of Trumpets because that was known as the feast where no one knew the day or the hour that it would begin," said Biltz. "So it's kind of like if I told you, 'I'm not going to tell you when I'm coming, but "Gobble, gobble, gobble,'" [pointing to] Turkey Day."Church stressed despite the information suggesting 2015 could be a pivotal time, "We don't know that that will be the concluding year of the tribulation period ... so we're not setting a date and saying this is a warning. We're introducing the possibility of a watch."


The Golden Plates and the Feast of Trumpets
By Lenet Hadley Read

Lenet Hadley Read, “The Golden Plates and the Feast of Trumpets,” Ensign, Jan 2000, 25

The Prophet Joseph Smith received the Nephite plates on the annual day when Jews throughout the world celebrated the symbolic beginning of Israel’s final gathering.
Holy days have long been part of the Lord’s marvelous works, beginning with His blessing and sanctifying the seventh day (see Gen. 2:3). The Lord commanded all Israel to observe a series of holy days (see Lev. 23). Part of His purpose concerning this series of holy days was to teach of the Lord’s mortal and latter-day ministries.
The Early Harvest
Certain holy days were to coincide with Israel’s early, or spring, harvest. These holy days were given in part to teach of the Lord’s first coming, including the Crucifixion and Resurrection and the early gathering of Saints into the fold.
For example, Passover and its sacrificed lambs taught of the Lamb of God, who would come to be sacrificed. As the lambs’ blood saved Israel from death in Egypt during the original Passover, Jesus Christ’s blood would overcome death for all mankind. Indeed, the New Testament testifies that the Crucifixion occurred upon the day Israel observed Passover centuries later. 1
Further, Christ’s Resurrection harmonized with another observance connected to Passover week (see Lev. 23:9–11). As the Lord had commanded, the first sheaf of barley was cut down on the same day Christ was crucified on Passover, to be lifted up as an offering on the third day. Christ was lifted up from the grave on that third day, thus offering Himself as the firstfruits of the Resurrection (see 1 Cor. 15:20). 2
Similarly, the day of Pentecost occurred on another holy day, the Feast of Firstfruits, which celebrated the larger wheat harvest (see Lev. 23:15–17). Because of the coming of the Holy Ghost, 3,000 souls were baptized on that day (see Acts 2). Thus, this feast celebrated a spiritual as well as an agricultural harvest. 3
The Later Harvest
The Lord set forth another series of holy days for the seventh month, coinciding with the later, or autumn, harvest. They are (1) the Feast of Trumpets, (2) the Day of Atonement, and (3) the Feast of Tabernacles. These holy days also held prophetic significance, for they have an important relationship to the Lord’s spiritual gleaning in the latter days. 4
This article will focus on the Feast of Trumpets. It is important to note that on 22 September 1827, the very day Israel celebrated the Feast of Trumpets, 5 Moroni gave the golden plates to the Prophet Joseph Smith. Since this feast was ripe with meaning for the theme of the regathering of Israel, it is unlikely this timing was accidental. Indeed, young Joseph was asked to meet Moroni for four years in preparation for that significant day in 1827.
Latter-day Saints can find it especially instructive to study some of the meanings Jewish scholars have attributed to the Feast of Trumpets. It signifies (1) the beginning of Israel’s final harvest, (2) the day God had set to remember His ancient promises to regather Israel, (3) a time for new revelation that would lead to a new covenant with Israel, and (4) a time to prepare for the Millennium.
The Beginning of the Final Harvest
The Lord commanded Israel, “In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets” (Lev. 23:24). Because this festival was set for the first day of the seventh month of the Judaic calendar (usually falling in our September), the day was timed for the gathering of the vital oil and wine. Thus this festival initiated the fall season and the great and final time of “ingathering.” 6
Many Jewish scholars have taught that the final spiritual gathering of Israel would begin with the Feast of Trumpets. 7 As Elder Bruce R. McConkie (1915–85) of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles stated, “The completion of the full harvest … will not be completed until that millennial day when ‘the Lord shall be king over all the earth’ [Zech. 14:9].” 8
It is noteworthy that the word of the Lord to Latter-day Saints is full of harvest imagery: “For behold the field is white already to harvest; and lo, he that thrusteth in his sickle with his might, the same layeth up in store that he perisheth not” (D&C 4:4). As modern prophets have said, the Book of Mormon is the major instrument the Lord prepared to initiate His final harvest. 9 Therefore, it is significant that the golden plates were received on 22 September 1827, coinciding with the beginning of Israel’s fall garnering and symbolizing the onset of its final harvest of souls.
The Day God Remembers His Promises
The Hebrew name used today for the Feast of Trumpets is Rosh Hashanah, which is the Jewish New Year. But this was not its original name, though the day does signify a new beginning. One of its original names was the Day of Remembrance. This name arose because the Lord commanded Israel to blow trumpets on this day for remembrance.
According to tradition, it was on this day that the Israelites were remembered and freed from slavery in Egypt, prior to the completed Exodus. 10 Also, it was on this day that the Lord remembered Israel and granted them spiritual renewal after their return from captivity in Babylon. For it was on the first day of the seventh month that Ezra read from the book of the law, and the people rejoiced because he “gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading” (see Neh. 8:1–12).
As a result of their banishment, the Jews had lost many of the Lord’s truths, which they were now hearing again in clarity. Their spiritual remembering and renewal led to the making of new covenants (see Neh. 9:38; Neh. 10). Their escape from Babylonian bondage was a foreshadowing of our modern-day escape from worldly Babylon. 11 In our time, the Book of Mormon has been a major factor in leading millions of people away from worldly falsehoods and back to spiritual truths.
Many Judaic writers teach that the major theme of the Feast of Trumpets is remembrance: God’s remembrance of His covenants with Israel and the need for Israel to remember their God. 12 The prayers of the day plead for this remembrance. They ask God to remember His covenants with the ancient patriarchs that He would regather His people.
The Jewish scriptures that are read on this day promise such remembrance and speak of the trumpet as signaling it. For example, Isaiah 27:13 [Isa. 27:13] says: “And it shall come to pass in that day [the time of regathering], that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt.”
Another example is Zechariah 9:14 [Zech. 9:14]: “And the Lord God shall blow the trumpet,” which accompanies pronouncements that Ephraim would help raise up God’s covenant people (see Zech. 9:13) and that those of Israel’s blood would again become His flock (see Zech. 9:16).
These and other scriptural connections are sufficiently strong that throughout the centuries various Jewish writers, in explaining the purpose of the trumpets’ sound on the Feast of Trumpets, have taught that this day would eventually signal Israel’s return from worldwide scattering. 13
Also read during this feast are scriptures telling of biblical women becoming fruitful after barrenness. In fact, Jewish tradition is that God fulfilled His promises to Rachel, Hannah, and Sarah on this special day. 14 The overtones of these events are impressive. For after Rachel was remembered, she was blessed with Joseph, from whom came Ephraim and Manasseh. From Hannah’s barrenness came the boy prophet Samuel and a return to righteous priesthood.
For these and other reasons, this day has been seen by some Jewish writers as the day when God would eventually move from His seat of judgment concerning Israel and sit instead upon the seat of mercy. 15 Thus, layer upon layer this holy day symbolizes the new beginning Israel would experience as God has mercy upon them in their exile, remembers His covenants with their fathers, and begins to restore them as His people. As a result, their barrenness would be removed, and they would become again a fruitful tree (see 1 Ne. 10:14).
This anticipated new beginning was to be initiated with the sounding of the trumpet (a shofar, or ram’s horn, is still used in modern practice). One Jewish commentator has said, “Expectantly, we await the sounding of the [Trumpet] of Liberation, when Zion will be free to receive its exiled children from all parts of the earth.” 16
On 22 September 1827, Israel’s trumpets sounded throughout the world; it was the day the Prophet Joseph Smith received the golden plates, which would help fulfill God’s promise to remember Israel in the latter days.
A Time for New Revelation Leading to a New Covenant
The blowing of the trumpet is the major ritual of the Feast of Trumpets. Because the first mention of the trumpet is at Mount Sinai, these instruments are seen by Jewish writers as a symbol of revelation (see Ex. 19:16, 19). The trumpet sound is therefore understood by them as a memorial of the revelation and covenant given on Mount Sinai. Yet Rosh Hashanah’s trumpet blasts have been accepted by many Jews not just as a memorial of the ancient covenant revealed at Sinai but as a prelude to a new and future covenant to be revealed, one that would result in Israel’s ultimate redemption. 17 The day’s ritual includes a prayer regarding revelation named “Trumpets.”
The day’s services also include petitions to God to rebuild His temple—the place where covenants are made—as He promised. 18 The sound of the trumpets, which occurred in this religious service in 1827, did indeed precede new revelation that has led to the making of new covenants in new temples with an Israel now being regathered.
A Time to Prepare for the Millennium
Part of the significance of the Feast of Trumpets lies in its relation to the other holy days connected to Israel’s last harvest. To begin with, the placement of this whole series of holy days in the seventh month of Israel’s calendar brings special meaning, in that the seventh period of a month, year, or so forth, is generally considered holy and symbolic of completion and fulfillment.
So significant are these three days—the Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah), the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), and the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)—that together they are called by Jews the High Holy Days and the Days of Awe.
The placement of the Feast of Trumpets as the first in the set shows its importance in the preparation for the significant days ahead. Indeed, the very nature of the signals that the trumpet makes show the need for repentance as an essential part of this preparation. First, the rabbis teach, God offers hope, symbolically demonstrated by a long, lengthy note. Then man’s weeping for his transgressions with a desire to forsake them is manifested by a series of short notes. Finally, God’s forgiveness to those truly repentant is represented by another long note. What beautiful symbolism for us to be aware of!
Established prayers on this day urge repentance for the coming reign of the Messiah. And some teach that God will establish judgment of “who shall live and who shall die; … who shall be cast down and who elevated.” 19 This judgment is based, of course, upon who is truly repentant and who continues to be worthy. It is believed that the ultimate judgment is not “sealed” upon one until the Day of Atonement.
The space between the Feast of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement can signify the time one has left to repent. Thus the trumpet of the Feast of Trumpets sounds a final warning: time is crucial for returning to God and to righteousness. 20
Judaic scholars teach that the Day of Atonement represents the time when the unrepentant are doomed, whereas at that time the repentant are forgiven and reconciled to God. Worshipers believe that on this day they spiritually enter the Holy of Holies, which is symbolic of entering into God’s presence. This time is represented as providing them with their “highest and deepest communion with God.” 21
For Latter-day Saints who understand the restored gospel of Jesus Christ, a study of the relationship between these holy days verifies what prophets and scriptures teach about what will occur in the last days. While Christ performed the great act of Atonement in His mortal life, His work is not yet complete. His return will further fulfill reconciliation between Him and mankind, serving as a time of At-one-ment, a time repentant individuals can physically enter His presence.
For Jews, because Israel’s last three holy days signify something momentous to come, the period between the Feast of Trumpets and the Feast of Tabernacles is called the Days of Awe. We have already noted that the Feast of Tabernacles signifies a completed harvest, Christ’s millennial reign. As we anticipate further fulfillment of all the works of the Lord, Latter-day Saints know that they truly will be Days of Awe.
Was the coming forth of the Book of Mormon on the Feast of Trumpets coincidental? Latter-day Saints who know about these events do not think so. Scriptural and prophetic truth is often manifest through fulfillment. The golden plates were delivered to the young Prophet Joseph Smith early in the morning of 22 September 1827. The Feast of Trumpets, with prayers pleading for God’s remembrance of his still-exiled people, had begun at sundown the previous evening. The services continued that morning, with a worldwide sounding of the ram’s horn. Unbeknown to Judah, all that those horns represented was now to be fulfilled. For on that day, God remembered His people and set in motion His plan to regather them. On that day, God’s final harvest began. On that day, new revelation was granted which would bring a return to renewed covenants. From that day onward, Israel would be called to repentance in preparation for Christ’s return and reign. The Book of Mormon exists to serve these ends. Today, Moroni’s image trumpets from temple spires around the world a final call to awaken, repent, and prepare.
For Latter-day Saints, knowing this is the final harvest with an ever-shortening time to labor should further motivate us to thrust in our sickles with our might. In that spirit, as we feel joy in that harvest we should make known the marvelous work that the Lord has brought forth in these latter days (see D&C 65:4).

Passover—Was It Symbolic of His Coming?
By John P. Pratt
Next >

John P. Pratt, “Passover—Was It Symbolic of His Coming?,” Ensign, Jan 1994, 38
Not only was Passover a prophetic symbol of the Lord’s sacrifice, its timing foreshadowed the coming of the Savior in the meridian of time.
Adam was given the promise that the Son of Man, Jesus Christ, would come “in the meridian of time.” (Moses 6:57.) Later, Enoch specifically asked when the Savior would come, and he was given the same response: “in the meridian of time.” (Moses 7:46.) This phrase is again used in the Doctrine and Covenants to refer to the time of the first coming of the Savior. (See D&C 20:26; D&C 39:3.)
But just what does this phrase, “the meridian of time,” mean?
In astronomy, the meridian is a north-south line passing exactly overhead that divides the sky in half. Meridian literally means “midday.” The sun culminates (reaches its high point) as it passes over the meridian. Time before that “passover” is called ante meridiem (a.m., or “before midday”), and afterward it is post meridiem (p.m., or “after midday”). (See Figure 1.)
The scriptural meaning of “the meridian of time” has been interpreted by Church leaders to be essentially the same as the astronomical meaning: that is, the coming of Christ marked the high noon, so to speak, of the earth’s temporal existence. Elder Bruce R. McConkie wrote, “The meridian of time is the middle or high point of that portion of eternity which is considered to be mortal time. Since Christ lived, ministered, and worked out the atonement in time’s meridian, such era was truly the high point of history.” 1
Let us now see how the meridian of time may have been symbolized in the calendar of the law of Moses, because the law of Moses was given to prepare Israel for the “coming of Christ.” (2 Ne. 11:4.)
The Law of Moses Typified His Coming
The Nephites “did look forward to the coming of Christ, considering that the law of Moses was a type of his coming.” (Alma 25:15; emphasis added.) Knowing that Christ’s coming was in the meridian of time and that the Mosaic law was a pattern of his coming, we can expect to see in the law of Moses symbolism referring to the meridian of time.
The law of Moses “was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ” (Gal. 3:24), wrote the Apostle Paul, offering “a shadow of good things to come” (Heb. 10:1). How? One example is the actual sacrificing of the Passover lamb, which was in similitude of the death of Jesus. (See 1 Cor. 5:7.) It appears that the symbolism also included the timing of the Savior’s death: the Passover lamb was killed between 3:00 and 5:00 p.m. 2 on the afternoon of the fourteenth day of the spring month specified in the law of Moses (see Ex. 12:1–6), which was when the Lamb of God actually died as a sacrifice (see John 19:14; Matt. 27:46). We are assured that not only the death but also the coming of Christ was typified in the law. Nephi rejoiced, “Behold, my soul delighteth in proving unto my people the truth of the coming of Christ; for, for this end hath the law of Moses been given.” (2 Ne. 11:4; emphasis added.)
But just where in the law of Moses is the “type of his coming”? (Alma 25:15.) Let us examine the calendar associated with the law of Moses to discover the rich symbolism of the meridian of time.
Lunisolar meridian: 15 Nisan. In order to understand the symbolism of the meridian of time, we need to consider the calendar that the Lord commanded Moses to use in determining days on which the sacrifices and feasts were to be held. That calendar is partly described in the five books of Moses (Genesis through Deuteronomy). It was similar in many respects to the modern Hebrew calendar (see Figure 2) but very different from our Gregorian (Roman) calendar.
The Hebrew lunisolar calendar (luni: “moon”; solar: “sun”) uses the moon to reckon months and the sun to measure years. In contrast, our Gregorian calendar is not so complex: it is a solar calendar, meaning it keeps track of only the sun. By inserting leap days according to a fixed pattern, the spring equinox (when the sun rises due east) is always on March 20–21. Also, although we still use the word month—which derives from moon—our months are no longer tied to the moon as are Hebrew months.
The Hebrew day begins in the evening, the month begins at the new moon, and the year begins in the fall. 3 Because the Hebrew 24-hour day begins at sunset, the meridian—or middle point—of the full daily cycle is actually at sunrise. (See accompanying sidebar, “Sunrise Symbolism.”) The first day of any month is within two days of the new moon, and the fifteenth day of any month (of twenty-nine or thirty days) is near the full moon. Accordingly, the midpoint of every Hebrew month can be represented by the fifteenth day.
The meridian month of the year is the spring month Nisan. 4 Thus, 15 Nisan represents the meridian both of the Hebrew year and of that month. In the law revealed to Moses, this meridian day of the Hebrew year was also the annual Passover feast day.
Passover Feast: 15 Nisan. The day 15 Nisan was the day of the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt. (See Num. 33:3.) The Lord declared it to be an annual holy day in order to remind Israel of its liberation from the bondage of Egypt. (See Ex. 12:17, 42; Ex. 13:3.) It was a day of rejoicing, and even today Passover is practically synonymous with “liberation.”
On 15 Nisan, the Israelites began a one-week celebration called the feast of unleavened bread. (See Lev. 23:6.) The first day was the feast of the Passover, at which the Passover lamb was eaten. It was a special sabbath day of rest. (See Lev. 23:7.) It was held in the evening that began the day 15 Nisan, shortly after the sacrifice of the lamb in the afternoon that ended the previous day, 14 Nisan; thus, technically, the sacrifice of the lamb and the Passover feast occurred on different calendrical days. (See Lev. 23:5–6.)
We shall refer to 15 Nisan as the Passover feast day, but it is also called the first day of Passover or the first day of unleavened bread. Thus, our expectations are fulfilled that a meridian would be prominent in the law of Moses: 15 Nisan, the meridian of the Hebrew year, is the Passover feast day.
The Exodus as a Type of His Birth
Not only did the law of Moses point to Christ, the Exodus itself is also rich in symbolism of the Savior. Let us now see how Israel’s deliverance from the house of bondage apparently prefigured Jesus’ birth.
First, the Lord told Moses, “Israel is my son, even my firstborn.” (Ex. 4:22.) Thus, Israel represented Christ, the firstborn of God. (See Col. 1:15; D&C 93:21.)
Second, the Lord related the day that Israel was delivered to the firstborn’s opening the mother’s womb. (See Ex. 13:2; Num. 3:13, Num. 8:17.) Because the firstborn was a type of Christ, we find here the birth of Jesus linked to the day 15 Nisan.
Third, in the light of understanding that Israel symbolized Christ, and Egypt the womb, one can find several other passages which may imply that Jesus would be born on the evening beginning 15 Nisan. For example, on the day before the Exodus the Lord told Moses, “I will pass through the land of Egypt this night.” (See Ex. 12:12; compare Ex. 13:1–4, 14–15; Deut. 16:1. Nisan was originally called Abib 5.) Moreover, there is a Jewish tradition that the Messiah would come on the night of the Passover feast. 6
Finally, the Exodus was indeed the birth of the nation of Israel; that is, after a long gestation period in Egypt, the nation was literally born on the day it was delivered. Then followed the symbolic sojourn: crossing the water (which could symbolize birth), being led through the wilderness (which possibly symbolizes mortality), and again crossing the water into the promised land. 7
Combining these correlations, we could conclude that not only was the Exodus apparently symbolic of Christ’s birth but also that perhaps the very night of Jesus’ birth was symbolically indicated to be the evening beginning (preceding) 15 Nisan. No wonder it was celebrated by a joyous feast; it was “that night of the Lord to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.” (Ex. 12:42; italics added.) Thus, it appears that Passover was the birthday feast both of Israel and of the Savior.
Life Transitions at Passover
The concept of Passover is closely linked to that of a transition to a new phase of life, even as the sun “passes over” the meridian at noon, when it is at the high point of its daily journey. But at sunrise each day, passage over that meridian is even more clearly symbolic of transition. This symbolism is commonly used in phrases such as “the dawning of a new age.” This is the time when the sun is “born” each day, passing over into our world at sunrise; then it “dies” when it passes over the horizon at sunset.
Since the death (14 Nisan), birth (15 Nisan), and resurrection (16 Nisan) of Christ are all associated with rites during Passover, it seems that the word also symbolizes Christ’s “passing over” from the premortality of the spirit world to the physical world, as well as from the physical world to the spirit world. For example, the afternoon of the fourteenth day of Nisan “is the Lord’s Passover” (Lev. 23:5), when the lamb was killed. Using this symbolic meaning of passover, this verse suggests that the Savior would pass over into the spirit world on the afternoon of 14 Nisan. If thus interpreted, the phrase “pass over” is similar to the phrase “pass on” or “pass away,” used to mean death.
On 15 Nisan, the day of joyous feast of Passover when the firstborn were sanctified and Israel was born, the Savior passed over from spirit-world pre-mortality at his birth. On 16 Nisan, when the firstfruits of the harvest were offered (see Lev. 23:10–11), he again passed over from the spirit world into his body at the Resurrection (see Ensign, July 1985, p. 57) and became the firstfruits of them that slept. (See 1 Cor. 15:20.)
In addition to meridian symbolism, then, the term Passover can be used to symbolize transitions to new phases of life, such as birth, death, and resurrection.
His Coming to Minister at Passover
Following the baptism and temptation of Jesus, the first event mentioned in the synoptic Gospels is the Savior’s return to Galilee after John the Baptist had been cast into prison. (See Matt. 4:12; Mark 1:14; Luke 4:14.) The Gospel of John, however, includes more than two chapters of events that occurred before John the Baptist was imprisoned (see John 1:29–4:43), as specifically stated (see John 3:24). Thus, only the Gospel of John describes the beginning of the Savior’s ministry.
John makes mention of only one miracle that the Savior performed between his baptism and the Passover the following spring. John states that changing water into wine at the marriage in Cana was the “beginning of [the Savior’s] miracles.” Yet even this miracle was not public. Only the Lord’s disciples and the servants knew of it. (See John 2:1–11.) Apparently it was not until the Passover, which followed “not many days” later, that Jesus began to perform miracles openly, marking the beginning of his public ministry. Further, John indicates the exact day these public miracles began: “Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.” (John 2:23; emphasis added.) Thus, appropriately, it appears that Christ began his public ministry on the celebration day of the Passover feast, 15 Nisan. 8 If so, then according to conclusions above, it would have also been on his birthday. But which birthday? It would have been near his thirtieth because he was “beginning to be about thirty” at his baptism shortly before (Luke 3:23). Let us also consider law of Moses symbolism to help answer this question.
Levites typified Christ. The Lord told Moses, “I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn.” (Num. 3:12; see also Num. 8:18.) Because the Levites were thus a symbol of Christ as the Firstborn, perhaps we can also expect to learn part of the pattern of the Savior’s life from the laws given to the Levites. The law of Moses stated that Levites “thirty years old and upward” should enter into the service of the Lord. (Num. 4:3, 23, 30.) Consequently, if the law was symbolic of Him, we might expect that Jesus would also begin his ministry at age thirty.
That Jesus was thirty when he began his ministry is independently verified by the combined witnesses of John and the Book of Mormon. The latter tells us that he lived very nearly thirty-three Nephite years (3 Ne. 2:8; Hel. 14:20; 3 Ne. 8:3–5), and John describes a three-year ministry ending at his death at Passover. Thus, the feast day birthday on which he apparently began his ministry was his thirtieth birthday. If so, we can conclude that the Savior fulfilled the symbolism of the law of Moses to the very day.
Cleansing the temple. The Savior cleansed the temple just before Passover both at the beginning of his ministry (see John 2:13–16) and at the end (see Matt. 21:12–3). In terms of our having a fuller understanding of Passover, note that the cleansing of the temple also fits the pattern of Passover. That is, part of the prescribed actions at Passover include searching the house for any leaven and putting it entirely outside the house. (See Ex. 12:15.) It would seem that leaven could symbolize false teachings (see Matt. 16:12), hypocrisy (see Luke 12:1), or wickedness (see 1 Cor. 5:7–8), which the Savior put out of his Father’s house, the temple, by “cleansing” it of those who defiled it.
His Coming to the Spirit Prison
The climax of the Savior’s mission in the meridian of time was the act of delivering mankind out of bondage by loosing the chains of hell and breaking the bands of death. (See Alma 5:6–9.) It was the apex of a crescendo that had been swelling since the fall of Adam, culminating in the three days of the Atonement (Friday) 9 to Resurrection (Sunday).
We read that those in the spirit world had been “assembled awaiting the advent of the Son of God into the spirit world.” In fact, they were already “rejoicing in the hour of their deliverance from the chains of death,” when the Redeemer would come to declare “liberty to the captives who had been faithful.” (D&C 138:16, 18.) Thus, they clearly expected the Lord to come at that very time. But why? Apparently it was because it was Passover, the day when Israel had been “redeemed” from the “house of bondage” at the Exodus (see Deut. 13:5), foreshadowing the day when “the Redeemer” would proclaim “the opening of the prison,” and deliver the “spirits in prison” from “bondage.” (See D&C 138:42, 28.)
Inasmuch as Jesus died in the closing hours of 14 Nisan, his coming to the spirit world was at the beginning of the Passover feast day, 15 Nisan, the day symbolic of deliverance from the house of bondage. (See D&C 138:50.) This coming fulfilled one Jewish tradition which insisted that the Redemption could take place only on 15 Nisan, as foreshadowed by the Exodus. The tradition is: “God said, ‘Let this sign be in your hands: on the day when I wrought salvation for you, and on that very night know that I will redeem you; but if it is not this night, then do not believe.’ ” A footnote clarifies: “This apparently means: Should a pretended redeemer come at any other time, do not believe him, for the redemption will take place on that day and on no other.” 10
The Passover Time Pattern
During this look at the time pattern of the law of Moses, it has been unnecessary to refer to our calendar. Now the pattern we have seen may be used as a chronological template (compare D&C 52:14) to date the coming of Christ in the meridian of time to mortality, to the ministry, and to the spirit world.
Birth: Thursday, 6 April 1 b.c. Since the organization of the Church on 6 April 1830, members have been informed that Jesus was born on 6 April 1 b.c. (on our Gregorian calendar 11). Modern scripture states that the Church was organized 1,830 years “since the coming of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in the flesh.” (D&C 20:1.) It seems the Lord intended this verse to be accurate to the very day: both President Harold B. Lee and President Spencer W. Kimball have affirmed that 6 April on our calendar is the anniversary of the Savior’s birth. (See Ensign, July 1973, p. 2; May 1980, p. 54.)
This date has an important confirmation in the Lord’s pattern of the law of Moses that Christ would be born on the evening preceding 15 Nisan. Astronomical calculations show that 6 April of 1 b.c. was appropriate for Passover that year. In view of the tight symbolic connection of Passover to the birth of the firstborn discussed earlier, this is further strong support for the view that Jesus was born on the night of, or preceding, 6 April. 12
Beginning the Public Ministry: Saturday, 6 April a.d. 30. The most likely date for the feast day (15 Nisan) on which the Savior began his ministry on his thirtieth birthday is Saturday, 6 April a.d. 30. The day 15 Nisan can fall on any date from about 21 March to 23 April, but it only falls on the same day of the solar year (that is, on 6 April) after certain intervals of time. One of those intervals is thirty years. Even then, it does not happen after every thirty-year interval; it depends on the details of the moon’s motion. But in this case, 6 April is clearly the most likely candidate for 15 Nisan in a.d. 30.
The Spirit World: Saturday, 2 April a.d. 33. Similarly, the most likely date for the Passover feast day on the Judean calendar three years later, at the end of Christ’s ministry, appears to be Saturday, 2 April a.d. 33. It would have begun after sunset following the death of the Savior on Friday, 14 Nisan. Thus, if this view is correct, both the Savior’s ministry in life and in the spirit world would have begun on Saturday, the Sabbath at that time, these particular Sabbaths being doubly sacred by also being the Passover feast day.
So we see that the Mosaic calendar, used to determine the timing of the sacred feasts, which were “types of things to come” (Mosiah 13:31), apparently pointed to the dates of the coming of Jesus Christ in the meridian of time. Moreover, the date noted in Doctrine and Covenants 20:1 [D&C 20:1] as the day of Jesus’ birth fits the scriptural pattern perfectly. In its ability to have summarized so much, the simple statement that the Lord would “come in the meridian of time” is remarkable.
Let us look at other witnesses confirming these dates from both the Book of Mormon and secular sources.
Witness of the Book of Mormon
The Bible, Book of Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants appear to be consistent to the very day concerning Jesus Christ’s birth date, the length of his life, and the date of his resurrection. 13 An exact length for the Savior’s life can be deduced from the Book of Mormon, which records that Nephite reckoning began at the sign of his birth (see 3 Ne. 2:8) and that he died on the fourth day of the thirty-fourth year (see 3 Ne. 8:5). If Jesus was born on the first day of the first Nephite year (which may be implied), and if the years each had 365 days (consistent with the Egyptian and Mesoamerican calendars used before and after the Nephites), then Jesus lived 12,048 days. Counting 12,048 days after a Passover feast day on Thursday, 15 Nisan—6 April 1 b.c.—brings one precisely to a Passover sacrifice day: Friday, 14 Nisan—1 April a.d. 33—the day indicated by the pattern in the law of Moses as the day of the death of the Lamb of God. Moreover, that is most likely the very day indicated by the Bible as the day that Jesus died. Such interscriptural consistency in these details provides a strong witness to the proposed dates of both the birth and the death of the Savior.
Witness of Secular History
Let us look at a summary of facts from external histories that support these dates.
Birth. Little is known about the date of the birth of Christ from secular histories. Most of the potentially useful biblical clues, such as the star of Bethlehem (see Matt. 2:2), the slaughter of the infants (see Matt. 2:16), or an empire-wide taxation (registration or census; see Luke 2:1) while King Herod reigned (see Luke 1:5; Matt. 2:1), have not been clearly identified in secular histories. Accordingly, dates from 7 b.c. to 1 b.c. have been proposed.
The only secular thread to which the birth of Jesus has consistently been tied is the death of King Herod, who was visited by the Magi after the birth of the Savior. For several centuries it has been believed that Herod died in 4 b.c., and so the birth of Christ has been placed about two years before (see Matt. 2:1, 16), in 6 or 5 b.c. However, recent reevaluation of the evidence suggests that Herod died some time later, in 1 b.c. 14, or a.d. 1. 15 It is now a field of intense study 16, but with no clear solution in sight. The problem is the same as with the other biblical clues: lack of solid evidence. The Jewish historian Josephus is the only source for details about Herod’s life, and even he does not mention the year of Herod’s death. 17
One new historical argument for the occurrence of the birth of Christ somewhere in the 2 to 1 b.c. period is the view that the decree “that all the world should be taxed” (enrolled or registered; see Luke 2:1) has finally been identified as an empire-wide census and oath of allegiance to Augustus in 2 b.c. 18 Josephus apparently mentions that oath 19, which, according to his history, would have been a year or so before Herod’s death. These new dates fit well with the Passover pattern discussed above—that Christ was born in the spring of 1 b.c. and that Herod died in early a.d. 1.
It has been pointed out 20 that the 6 April 1 b.c. date also explains certain aspects of the New Testament account. For example, the date is during the short lambing season, which would explain why the shepherds were “keeping watch over their flock by night.” (Luke 2:8.) Moreover, the fact that “there was no room for them in the inn” (Luke 2:7) suggests that the birth probably occurred at the time of one of the three feasts, such as Passover, at which Jews were required to be in Jerusalem. 21 That proposal is also consistent with the 6 April date.
Fortunately, although secular histories are not very useful in helping us to determine Christ’s date of birth, they offer clear testimony for the dates of his ministry and death.
Ministry. Secular evidence for the year of the beginning of Christ’s ministry is perhaps the strongest for any date in the New Testament, because it is closely tied to the reign of a Roman emperor. Luke 3:1–3 states that John the Baptist began his ministry during the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, which Roman historians equate to the Julian calendar year a.d. 29. 22 Some months later, Jesus began his ministry at the Passover of a.d. 30.
Death and Resurrection. Evidence for the very day of the Savior’s death and for the day of his resurrection is strong from the New Testament account. (See Ensign, June 1985, pp. 59–68.) First, we can conclude that it was three years after the beginning of the ministry, because four Passovers are mentioned or implied in the Gospels. Second, it is stated that Jesus was crucified on the day of the preparation of the Passover (see John 19:14), which would be 14 Nisan. Finally, the day of his death is indicated as Friday (see Matt. 27:62), which at the time was called simply the “preparation”—a day of preparation, that is, for Saturday, the Sabbath. Counting the day of his trial and death as the first day, Christ’s resurrection occurred on the third day (see Luke 24:20–21), which is given in all four Gospels as “the first day of the week”—Sunday. (See Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1.) In the implied crucifixion year, a.d. 33, astronomical calculations indicate that that Friday, 1 April a.d. 33 on our calendar 23, was most likely to have been 14 Nisan that year.
Another witness comes from Phlegon, a Greek secular historian from Caria (in Asia Minor), writing soon after a.d. 137, who “reported that in the fourth year of the 202d Olympiad there was ‘the greatest eclipse of the sun’ and that ‘it became night in the sixth hour of the day [i.e., noon] so that the stars even appeared in the heavens. There was a great earthquake in Bithynia, and many things were overturned in Nicaea.’ ” 24
The year mentioned began on 1 July a.d.. 32 and ended 30 June a.d. 33, a period which includes the time identified as that of the Savior’s crucifixion. The fact that Phlegon records both darkening of the sun at noon and earthquakes, just as Matthew describes (see Matt. 27:45, 51), in that same year, makes it apparent that he is describing the same events that were also witnessed in distant cities in modern-day Turkey. This also confirms traditions that “the terror of the earthquake continued from the sixth hour of the preparation until the ninth hour” (from noon till 3:00 p.m. on Friday; compare 3 Ne. 8:17–19), and that “when he was crucified darkness came over all the world,” “the sun was altogether hidden,” “the stars were seen,” and “in all the world they lighted their lamps from the sixth hour until evening.” 25
Thus, the Passover pattern in the law of Moses, the reckoning from the Bible and the Book of Mormon, and related secular sources all supply corroborative evidence that the Savior was born on the night of, or preceding, Thursday, 6 April 1 b.c.; that he began his ministry Saturday, 6 April a.d. 30; that he died on the cross on Friday, 1 April a.d. 33; that he ministered in the spirit world on Saturday, 2 April a.d. 33; and that he was resurrected on Sunday, 3 April a.d. 33.
Such order in the remarkable timing of the Savior’s birth, ministry, and death bears eloquent testimony that his advent in the meridian of time had been planned long before and that the law of Moses, as the ancient prophets declared, truly did foreshadow the Lord’s coming.
Sunrise Symbolism
The word day has two distinct meanings: the daily period of light, and also the full cycle of both darkness and light. Both meanings are indicated in the Lord’s account of the Creation:
“And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
“And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
“And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.” (Gen. 1:3–5.)
Note that in the last verse, day refers first to the period of light, and then to the entire cycle. Each of these days has its own meridian. The meridian of the period of light occurs at noon (see figure 1); but the full cycle of the day, as the Lord told Moses (see Gen. 1:3–5) and Abraham (see Abr. 4:5), begins with the night and ends with the day. That means that the symbolic meridian of the full daily cycle occurs at sunrise, which is both the midpoint of the entire cycle and also the division between light and darkness. Note that both the meridian of the twelve-hour day at noon and of the twenty-four-hour day at sunrise are valid symbols; they are simply the midpoints of two different “days.”
The coming of light to darkness at the meridian of the first day of creation suggests that even those events bear record of Christ. (See Moses 6:63.) That is, on the first day God created light, and Christ is the Light of the world (see John 8:12, John 12:46), the Firstborn of creation (see Col. 1:15). Further, the light came to the darkness at the meridian of that first “day” of creation, just as the light of Jesus would come into the dark world (see John 3:19) in the meridian of time.
A clear example of the rising sun representing Christ is the prophecy that unto the righteous “shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings.” (Mal. 4:2.) This reference to the sun so clearly meant Christ that the phrase “Son of righteousness” is interchangeable with it. (See 3 Ne. 25:2; 2 Ne. 26:9.) Nephi pointed out that Christ would rise “with healing in his wings” at His resurrection. (See 2 Ne. 25:13.) Mark wrote that when the women arrived at the tomb, the sun had risen, and Christ also had risen (see Mark 16:2, 9), but it is not clear whether Mark intended an association of Christ with the sun. The tie of the rising of the Son at the Resurrection and the rising of the sun on that day is often noted during Easter sunrise services.
Figure 1
Figure 1. The meridian divides the sky, and the twelve-hour day, in half. The hours before the sun passes over the meridian are ante meridiem (a.m.) or “before midday,” and the hours after the sun has passed over the meridian are post meridiem (p.m.) or “after midday.”
Figure 2

Click to View Larger FormatFigure 2. The Modern Hebrew Calendar. The lunar months all begin near a new moon, and an extra month is inserted seven times every nineteen years before Nisan to keep that month in the spring because twelve lunar months are about eleven days short of a solar year of 365.24 days. Note that Nisan is numbered as the first month (Ex. 12:2) even though the civil year begins with the planting season in the fall (Lev. 25:3–22) on 1 Tishri. The original seven holy days of the law of Moses are indicated with black dots. This modern calendar is based entirely on calculations; the Judean calendar used at the time of Christ was based on actual observation of the thin crescent of the new moon to determine the beginning of the month.
For some purposes, years are reckoned from Nisan, and months are always numbered beginning with Nisan, but the official civil year begins on 1 Tishri.
NISAN 1Formerly ABIB 30 days Mar–Apr1 New Year’s Day for Reign of Kings10 Passover lamb chosen• 14 Passover lamb sacrificed15 First Day of Passover (Feast of the Passover or Feast of Unleavened Bread)16 Offering of firstfruits• 21 Seventh day of Passover
IYAR 2Formerly ZIF 29 days Apr–May
SIVAN 330 days May–June• 6 Feast of Firstfruits (Feast of Weeks, Pentecost or Shabuoth)
TAMMUZ 429 days June–July17 Fast
AB 530 days July–Aug9 Fast
ELUL 629 days Aug–Sept
TISHRI 7Formerly ETHANIM 30 days Sept–Oct• 1 New Year’s Day (Rosh Hashanah, Feast of Trumpets)• 10 Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)• 15 First Day of Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth, Feast of Ingathering)• 22 Eighth Day of Feast of Tabernacles (Great Day of the Feast)
HESHVAN 8Formerly BUL 29 or 30 days Oct–Nov
KISLEV 929 or 30 days Nov–Dec25 Hanukkah (8 days)
TEBET 1029 days Dec–Jan
SHEBAT 1130 days Jan–Feb
ADAR 1229 days or ADAR I 30 days Feb–Mar14 Purim (Feast of Esther)
Month 13, inserted when necessary, is ADAR II or VEADAR, with 29 days.